The Internal Environment (Individual neural, cognitive, and affective mechanisms)
How eye movements reflect underlying cognitive processes during scene viewing has been a topic of considerable theoretical interest. In this study, we used eye-movement features and their distributions over time to successfully classify mental states as indexed by the behavioral task performed by participants. We recorded eye movements from 72 participants performing 3 scene-viewing tasks: visual search, scene memorization, and aesthetic preference. To classify these tasks, we used statistical features (mean, standard deviation, and skewness) of fixation durations and saccade amplitudes, as well as the total number of fixations. The same set of visual stimuli was used in all tasks to exclude the possibility that different salient scene features influenced eye movements across tasks. All of the tested classification algorithms were successful in predicting the task within a single participant. The linear discriminant algorithm was also successful in predicting the task for each participant when the training data came from other participants, suggesting some generalizability across participants. The number of fixations contributed most to task classification; however, the remaining features and, in particular, their covariance provided important task-specific information. These results provide evidence on how participants perform different visual tasks. In the visual search task, for example, participants exhibited more variance and skewness in fixation durations and saccade amplitudes, but also showed heightened correlation between fixation durations and the variance in fixation durations. In summary, these results point to the possibility that eye-movement features and their distributional properties can be used to classify mental states both within and across individuals.
Stressful life events are related to negative outcomes, including physical and psychological manifestations of distress, and behavioral deficits. Patients diagnosed with breast cancer report impaired attention and working memory prior to adjuvant therapy, which may be induced by distress. In this article, we examine whether brain dynamics show systematic changes due to the distress associated with cancer diagnosis. We hypothesized that impaired working memory is associated with suppression of “long-memory” neuronal dynamics; we tested this by measuring scale-free (“fractal”) brain dynamics, quantified by the Hurst exponent (H). Fractal scaling refers to signals that do not occur at a specific time-scale, possessing a spectral power curve P fð Þ/ f 2b; they are “long-memory” processes, with significant autocorrelations. In a BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we scanned three groups during a working memory task: women scheduled to receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy and aged-matched controls. Surprisingly, patients’ BOLD signal exhibited greater H with increasing intensity of anticipated treatment. However, an analysis of H and functional connectivity against self-reported measures of psychological distress (Worry, Anxiety, Depression) and physical distress (Fatigue, Sleep problems) revealed significant interactions. The modulation of (Worry, Anxiety) versus (Fatigue, Sleep Problems, Depression) showed the strongest effect, where higher worry and lower fatigue was related to reduced H in regions involved in visuospatial search, attention, and memory processing. This is also linked to decreased functional connectivity in these brain regions. Our results indicate that the distress associated with cancer diagnosis alters BOLD scaling, and H is a sensitive measure of the interaction between psychological versus physical distress.
Does resting-state connectivity reflect depressive rumination? A tale of two analyses.
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by rumination. Prior research suggests that resting-state brain activation reflects rumination when depressed individuals are not task engaged. However, no study has directly tested this. Here we investigated whether resting-state epochs differ from induced ruminative states for healthy and depressed individuals. Most previous research on resting-state networks comes from seed-based analyses with the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). By contrast, we examined resting state connectivity by using the complete multivariate connectivity profile (i.e., connections across all brain nodes) and by comparing these results to seeded analyses. We find that unconstrained resting-state intervals differ from active rumination states in strength of connectivity and that overall connectivity was higher for healthy vs. depressed individuals. Relationships between connectivity and subjective mood (i.e., behavior) were strongly observed during induced rumination epochs. Furthermore, connectivity patterns that related to subjective mood were strikingly different for MDD and healthy control (HC) groups suggesting different mood regulation mechanisms.
Dimensionality of brain networks linked to life-long individual differences in self-control
The ability to delay gratification in childhood has been linked to positive outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. Here we examine a sub-sample of participants from a seminal longitudinal study of self-control throughout a subject’s life span. Self-control, first studied in children at age 4 years, is now re-examined 40 years later, on a task that required control over the contents of working memory. We examine whether patterns of brain activation on this task can reliably distinguish participants with consistently low and high self-control abilities (low versus high delayers). We find that low delayers recruit significantly higher dimensional neural networks when performing the task compared with high delayers. High delayers are also more homogeneous as a group in their neural patterns compared with low delayers. From these brain patterns, we can predict with 71% accuracy, whether a participant is a high or low delayer. The present results suggest that dimensionality of neural networks is a biological predictor of self-control abilities.
Neural and behavioral effects of interference resolution in depression and rumination
Individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) often ruminate about their depression and their life situations, impairing their concentration and performance on daily tasks. We examined whether rumination might be due to a deficit in the ability to expel negative information from short-term memory (STM), and fMRI was used to examine the neural structures involved in this ability. MDD and healthy control (HC) participants were tested using a directed-forgetting procedure in a short-term item recognition task. As predicted, MDD participants had more difficulty than did HCs in expelling negative, but not positive, words from STM. Overall, the neural networks involved in directed forgetting were similar for both groups, but the MDDs exhibited more spatial variability in activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (a region critical for inhibiting irrelevant information), which may contribute to their relative inability to inhibit negative information.
Depression, rumination, and the default network
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been characterized by excessive default-network activation and connectivity with the subgenual cingulate. These hyper-connectivities are often interpreted as reflecting rumination, where MDDs perseverate on negative, self-referential thoughts. However, the relationship between connectivity and rumination has not been established. Furthermore, previous research has not examined how connectivity with the subgenual cingulate differs when individuals are engaged in a task or not. The purpose of the present study was to examine connectivity of the default network specifically in the subgenual cingulate both on- and off-task, and to examine the relationship between connectivity and rumination. Analyses using a seed-based connectivity approach revealed that MDDs show more neural functional connectivity between the posterior-cingulate cortex and the subgenual-cingulate cortex than healthy individuals during rest periods, but not during task engagement. Importantly, these rest-period connectivities correlated with behavioral measures of rumination and brooding, but not reflection.